Wednesday, 24 August 2011


Calamansi (×
Citrofortunella microcarpa Bunge.), also called ‘calamondin’ or ‘kalamansi’ in Tagalog and ‘limonsito’ in Cebuano, is the most important citrus fruit crop of the Philippines. A system for somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of this crop was developed for use in micropropagation, genetic transformation and in vitro conservation. Somatic embryos were induced using nucellar tissues from immature seeds cultured onto BP, Barba and Pateña, and MS, Murashige and Skoog, media, each with 20g/L sugar and 100 ml/L coconut water. Highest somatic embryo formation was observed in cultures in BP medium. Somatic embryo induction decreased as the fruit diameter increased. Somatic embryos were also induced from nucellar tissues cultured onto LMr medium (MS macro and micro, MT vitamins and amino acids with 1.0 mg/L each of kinetin and NAA, 2.0 mg/L BAP and 50 g/L sugar). Proliferation of somatic embryos was enhanced when subcultured onto Gp, Mp and Rp media (Gamborg’s B5, MS and BP media, respectively, with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, 400 mg/L glutamine, 60 g/L sugar and 100 ml/L coconut water). Maturation and germination of somatic embryos were observed in BP and MS media with 20g/L sugar and 100 ml/L coconut water. Plantlets developed in 3-5 weeks, were acclimatized and transplanted to soil. This system on somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in calamansi can now be used for micropropagation, genetic transformation and in vitro conservation studies. 

 Authors:   L.F. Pateña, L.E. Endonela, L.C. Refuerzo, R.C. Barba

 Keywords:   calamondin, tissue culture, immature seeds, nucellus, micropropagation

Calamondin,(Stain Remover)

This is not an investigatory project because there were no new methods introduced toimprove the effectively of Calamansi in removing stains. However, if revisions and innovationsabout the product and its process will be introduced, it will be a good Research.The Investigatory Project on CALAMANSI as STAINED REMOVER was conduct todetermine the alternative product in removing the stain in dress.This investigatory project research specifically aims:1.
To make an alternative product in zonrox/Clorox in removing stains.2.
To protect the hands/skin in the strong chemical that zonrox/Clorox containing.It also sought to answer the following problems:1.
How to produce calamansi as stained remover?2.
What is the efficiency of the calamansi in the removing stains.
CALAMANSI as STAIN REMOVER has gained prominence as an important businessproject. It gives people and provides them with extra income. Most importantly, it is cheap anddo not containing high quality of chemical that can burn your skin in hand.This production/experiment usually prepared by student or just an ordinary children.
The study has conducted to determine if the CALAMANSI is effective as STAINEDREMOVER. To determine the efficiency of CALAMANSI as an important product in removingstains.The specific objectives of the study include the following:1.
How effective is the CALAMANSI as stained remover?2.
Is there a significant difference of CALAMANSI as stain remover to the zonrox/Clorox?
There is significant in using CALAMANSI as stain remover in washing white clothes.2.
There is no significant in using CALAMANSI as stain remover in washing white clothes.